# ECE4893A/CS4803MPG: Multicore and GPU Programming for Video Games

## Fall 2012

## Homework #1: “Roll Your Own” 3-D Rendering

## Due: Thursday, Sept. 27 at 23:59:59 (via T-square)

**Late policy: The homework will be graded out of 100 points. We will
accept late submissions up to Sunday, Oct. 1 at 23:59:59; however,
for every day that is it is overdue,
we will subtract 20 points from the total.**

We understand thst sometimes multiple assignments hit at once, or other

life events intervene, and hence you have to make some tough choices. We’d

rather let you turn something in

late, with some points off, than have a “no late assignments

accepted at all”

policy, since the former encourages you to still do the assignment

and learn something from it, while the latter just grinds

down your soul. The

somewhat aggressive late penalty is not

intended to be harsh – it’s intended to

encourage you to get things in relatively on time (or just punt if you have

to and not leave it hanging over you all

semester) so that you can move on to

assignments for your other classes.

**Read these instructions completely and carefully before beginning your
work.**

Using a high-level scripting language of your choice,

write a program that

implements the

geometry transformations and lighting calculations discussed

in Sessions 3 through 5

to render

an image of a scene consisting of a single 3-D object.

For this assignment, you shouldn’t

worry too much about “modularity,” “reuse,” “extensibility,” “good taste,”

etc.,

and you shouldn’t worry at all about speed.

This is a “quick and dirty”

assignment that is primarily intended to

make you review the 3-D graphics material we

covered and make sure

you understand it. Direct3D, OpenGL, and XNA (using BasicEffect)

handles most of this “behind the

scenes,” but we want

to make sure you understand what is going on behind the scenes. Also, you

wind up coding much

of this “behind the scenes” work explicitly when you write vertex shaders

in languages such as

HLSL/Cg; hence, there is value in first testing your understanding of

these basic computer

graphics concepts using

a simple language like MATLAB or Python

before we add the additional complexities of

shader languages on

top of it.

**Your lighting model should include ambient and emissive components, as well
as diffuse and specular components arising from a single non-directional point
light source.** You do

*not*need to apply any decay-with-distance type

of effects or spotlight effects as described on pp. 16-17

of the Session 5 lecture slides.

At the top of your program, you should **set variables that determine**:

- The world-space XYZ position and RGB color of the light source. (You

will use this for both specular and diffuse lighting effects. An artist

might want to use different RGB calues for the specular and diffuse effects

to get some special effect, but here we’ll go with what’s physically possible.) - The RGB color of the ambient light.
- The world-space XYZ position

of the camera and the XYZ point the camera is looking

at. - The world-space position and orientation of the object. There are numerous

ways to represent object orientation; we will represent it as rotations

around the

x, y, and z axis (in that order), with the amount of rotation expressed

in degrees. Remember to do the rotations first, then the translation; these

operations can all be combined into a signal matrix through matrix

multiplication. (FYI, other common orientation representations

include pitch, roll, and yaw, and orientation around a specified axis,

and the closely related idea of quaternions.) I don’t care if your

rotations follow a left-handed or right-handed rule; whatever you like. - The “field of view” and the “near” and “far” distances

of the perspective projection viewing frustum.

You may assume an aspect ratio of one.

When we run your code, we should be able to change the variables at the top

to render

different scenes. The variables should be given easily understandable names.

The first time we ran this course,

the students were required

to find

their own 3-D model and figure out how to read it in. This turned out to be

pretty challenging. This year, we are going to let you have benefit of

using some of the models they converted to a “raw triangle” format:

shuttle

and cessna.

Pick one that you like.

(Students in previous years have reported that there are about 3 or 4

large triangles in the back that have a winding order inconsistent with

the rest of the model, so they may

erroneously disappear when you cull.

They’re by the tail on the top of the plane.

If you’re

using the cessna in your demo images, don’t worry about those few triangles.)

To give credit where it is

due, I have added the names of the students who converted the models to

raw triangle format in the

filename.

The files consists of rows of

9 numbers, which are just the x,y,z coordinates of the three vertices of

the triangles.

You may use one of these model for your assignment, or

if you are feeling ambitious, you may find and use a model not given here

if you can figure out how to read it in.

(This won’t be worth more points, but if you’re a Halo fan, for instance,

and find a model of the Master Chief – go for it! It could be fun.)

We will generally **use the Direct3D/XNA convention as representing spatial
coordinates as row vectors** (vs. OpenGL, which uses column vectors).

**Your program will
need to transform each of the vertices of the model**

by first applying

the “world” transformation to get it at the appropriate position and

orientation in world coordinates, then applying the “view” transformation to

get it into eyespace coordinates, and then applying the “projection”

transformation to get it into normalized coordinates. Your program

will then

**divide the**

x,y, and z coordinates by the w coordinate to implement the perspective

effect.

x,y, and z coordinates by the w coordinate to implement the perspective

effect

In this assignment, you can pre-multiply the view and

projection matrices if you want to save computation time.

(You can’t premultiply the

world transformation matrix too, since you’ll need that intermediate

result to do the lighting calculations, which we will do in the world

space for this assignment.)

Note that since you will be representing coordinates with row vectors, you

could store all the vertex coordinates for the object in a single

array with number-of-vertex rows and four columns. Then you can multiply that

big matrix a 4×4 geometry transformation matrix to transform all of the

vertices at once.

**You may choose to use a left-handed or right-handed coordinate system;
please
describe your choice in a comment at the top of your program.**

**You should use the View transformation matrices**

given in D3DXMatrixLookAtRH or

D3DXMatrixLookAtLH (use (0,1,0) for the “Up” vector), and

**the**

perspective transformation matricesgiven in D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovLH or

perspective transformation matrices

D3DXMatrixPerspectiveFovRH. Note that we’re just borrowing the equations from the

Microsoft documentation; you should write the code to create these various

matrices yourself.

In the interest of simplicity, **you
should feel free to use the same emissive color for all the facets, the
same diffuse material color for all the facets, and the same
specular material
color for
all the facets, etc.** – if you do this, you should

**set these variables**

(emissive color RGB, ambient material RGB,

diffuse material RGB, and specular material RGB)

at the beginning of your program.

(emissive color RGB, ambient material RGB,

diffuse material RGB, and specular material RGB)

at the beginning of your program.

If you feel like doing something more sophisticated, where

different facets have different properties,

you are welcome to do so, but it is not required for full credit.

**For this assignment, use a “flat shading” lighting
model.** For your lighting calculations, have your program

compute its

own normal for each flat-faced triangle based on the vertex

information for that

triangle (instead of using artist-supplied normals for each vertex, as

described in class). For issues such as computing the eye and light vector

needed for diffuse and specular light calculations, use the center point of

the facet (the average position of the three vertices). In general,

lighting calculations

can be done in whatever coordinate space you want (object, world, or view/eye),

as long as you are consistent. Here, we will

**do lighting calculations in**

world coordinates, i.e.

world coordinates

do the lighting calculations after you’ve transformed

the object to world coordinates, but before you’ve transformed them to

view coordinates. (Many 3-D engines actually do the lighting in view space,

so they can multiply world and view transformation matrices to gain some

efficiency. But that involves transforming the lighting positions and

pointing

vectors as well, as I don’t want to get into transforming direction vectors

at this point.)

Once you get things

into “normalized coordinates,”

**you only need to worry
about “clipping in z,” i.e. have your program delete all
facets whose z-values all fall outside the viewing frustum in
the z-dimension.** (If only some of the vertices

fall outside the z-dimension, go ahead and

render it.) If you clip in z after applying projective transformation matrix,

this is relatively easy since the z values get mapped to a range from 0 to 1.

If you don’t premultiply the view and the projection matrices, you can

clip in view space by comparing z to your specified near and far planes.

We’ll let the scripting

language’s native triangle drawing features worry

about clipping in x and y.

Instead of using a z-buffer to handle the fact that some facets will

obscure other

facets,

use “z-sorting,” which is also called the painter’s algorithm.

Z-sorting was popular when memory was

expensive; for instance,

the Playstation 1

uses z-sorting. Real-time

implementations typically use some sophisticated data structures to

do the sorting; here, you can

just use the “sort” command built into whatever scripting language

you use. **After you’ve done the perspective division operation,
compute the average of the z-values of the vertices of each triangle,
the facets in order of
these z-value averages. Then, render the facets in order of farthest
to closest.**

**At an appropriate point in your processing chain, you should perform
“backface culling” and
remove those facets that are facing away from the camera.**

(Be careful to

make sure the model you are using is following the conventions you

are expecting it to; if you you use

backface culling and see the back of the object instead

of the front, you’ll know to swap conventions.)

There are many different choices of when and where to cull, and each

possible choice leads to several sutle issues. In previous years, we

let the choice of culling technique be fairly open ended with limited guidance,

but this generated a great deal of confusion. For this assignment,

may choose to cull in one of

**two**places (please make a note in a comment

at the top of your code to make sure we know which technique you are using):

**Technique 1: After the
world transformation, but before the view transformation**,

using

the dot product test described on Slides 33 through 39.

For efficiency, if you

cull using this approach,

do it before you do any of the lighting calculations. In this

assignment, since we are using a flat-shading lighting model,

you can re-use the normal you computed to do the culling while

doing the lighting. This choice is closer to what a traditional “software”

renderer, like you might find described in an older computer graphics textbook,

would do. (I say “closer” since a real 3-D engine will typically transform

the light back to the original object coordinate system

and do the culling in object

space. However, that would require talking about how to transform normals,

and I figured this assignment was already sufficiently complicated.)

**Technique 2: After the perspective division, but before z-sorting**

(for efficiency – we’ll have less things to sort).

To do this, you can use a cross product

to compute new normals for the trianges (note these are different than

the ones you previously computed to do the lighting). Using this approach,

you don’t need to compute any dot products; you can just check the sign

of the z-value

of the normal to see which way the facet is facing. (See Slide 7 of

this slide set for an illustration of why this works.)

Notice that since you’re only looking at the z-value of the cross product,

you don’t actually need to compute the “full” cross product (i.e.

you don’t care about the x-value and the y-value of the cross product.)

This choice is closer to what modern

GPUs do internally. (I say “closer” since what’s typically done is a

more brute-force calculation of the “winding” of the triangles using a series

of comparisons. The approach

of computing the normal is nice for this assignment since it matches

techniques we’ve already covered.)

<!–**Clarification: It seems that a lot of models
out there are not consistent in following either a right hand or left
hand rule. We want to see the line(s) in your code that perform(s) this
culling
operation, but if you see that half your facets randomly disappear when
you turn this on because the modeler was sloppy, feel free to comment it
out.** –>

Again, don’t worry about efficiency when doing the culling and sorting.

It doesn’t matter at this stage if your program runs more slowly with

culling than without it. All we care about is that you understand the

core operations.

**Choice of implementation language:**

You should choose a

scripting language that has built-in matrix and vector operations

(preferably with built-in dot product and cross product operations), as well

as a mechanism to draw

filled 2-D triangles on the

screen – we will let the language handle the

rasterization process for you.

**The language you choose may have built
in 3-D graphics features, but you should not use them for this
assignment!!!**

We recommend using MATLAB; it has all the operations you need

“out of the box,” including

dot and cross products; you can compute many dot and cross products at

once with a single

line of code. It should be available on

most campus lab machines, such as the library and CoC and

ECE computing labs. (You also may be able to get some use out of

octave or

FreeMat,

which are open-source MATLAB equivalents, although I haven’t

tried their graphics features so I’m not sure about that part.)

MATLAB’s vectorization features let you write compact,

expressive code.

MATLAB is now used in the intro CS class for

engineers, and is also extensively used

throughout the ECE curriculum, particularly in ECE2025 or ECE2026.

CS and CM students will have been less likely to be exposed to it;

however, an advanced CS or CM undergraduate, who has

had exposure to many different kinds of programming

languages, will have little difficulty picking it up.

In any case, if you are CS or CM major, you will find

MATLAB to be a worthy weapon to add to your arsenal,

as it lets you try out a variety of numerical

algorithms with a minimal amount of fuss. Here

is an examples session at a MATLAB prompt that illustrates

various features. ECE students will find this familiar; CS and CM students

should be able to quickly

get a “feel” for the language.

>> % MATLAB comments start with a % sign >> % type 'help command' into MATLAB to get help on a particular command >> % 'ones(rows,columns)' generates a rows-by-columns matrix of 1s >> % * by itself is matrix multiplication, but .* will do elementwise multiplication >> % a semicolon at the end of a command suppresses output >> a = ones(3,1) * (9:-2:1) a = 9 7 5 3 1 9 7 5 3 1 9 7 5 3 1 >> b = (11:-2:7)' * ones(1,5) b = 11 11 11 11 11 9 9 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 7 >> c = a + b c = 20 18 16 14 12 18 16 14 12 10 16 14 12 10 8 >> d = a * b ??? Error using ==> mtimes Inner matrix dimensions must agree. >> d = a .* b d = 99 77 55 33 11 81 63 45 27 9 63 49 35 21 7 >> % compute columnwise cross product >> cross(a,b) ans = -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 36 28 20 12 4 -18 -14 -10 -6 -2 >> % compute columnwise dot product >> dot(a,b) ans = 243 189 135 81 27 >> 1 / (c + 3) ??? Error using ==> mrdivide Matrix dimensions must agree. >> 1 ./ (c + 3) ans = 0.0435 0.0476 0.0526 0.0588 0.0667 0.0476 0.0526 0.0588 0.0667 0.0769 0.0526 0.0588 0.0667 0.0769 0.0909 >> dude = [1 2 3; 5 6 7; 11 12 29] dude = 1 2 3 5 6 7 11 12 29 >> inv(dude) ans = -1.4062 0.3437 0.0625 1.0625 0.0625 -0.1250 0.0937 -0.1562 0.0625 >> dude(:,2) = [99 100 101]' dude = 1 99 3 5 100 7 11 101 29 >> dude(1:2,:) ans = 1 99 3 5 100 7 >> % most importantly for this assignment, MATLAB will also draw triangles for you! >> the image below was created via these commands: >> axis([-10 10 -10 10]) >> axis square >> % the first argument to patch consists of x coordinates, the second consists of y >> coordinates, and the third consists of an RGB triple >> patch([3 4 6],[-4 -3 -6],[1 0 0]) >> patch([1 5 9],[10 13 14],[0 1 0]) >> patch([-3 -6 -9],[1 2 5],[0 0 1]) >> patch([-1 -3 -5],[-4 -6 -7],[0.25 0.5 0.3])

There’s two versions of the “patch” command in MATLAB. One is for

drawing 3-D triangles using MATLABs 3-D graphics capabilities. This isn’t

what you want here. You want to use the “patch” that draws 2-D triangles, since

the point of the assignment is to understand how 3-D objects get turned

into 2-D graphics presented on a 2-D screen.

Here are some MATLAB tutorials

(I nicked these links from our standard 2025 recommendations):

- Matlab 7 Getting Started Guide
- Little Bits of

MATLAB, by Prof. Jim McClellan - MATLAB Tutorial,

by Prof. Ed Kamen and Prof. Bonnie Heck

You can tell MATLAB to not draw edges on the patches via

set(0,’DefaultPatchEdgeColor’,’none’) – thanks to Michael Cook (a student

from a previous year) for the tip.

If you don’t want to use MATLAB, you might try Python, Ruby,

Visual Basic, TCL, or Perl

with one of their numeric/scientific/graphical extensions; Mathematica

or Maple might also be useful. You can even use Scheme or Lisp, if you

can find one that will draw triangles.

(If you insist,

you can use a compiled language like

Java, Processing, or C++,

if you can find an appropriate matrix-manipulation and 2-D graphics library and

are

willing to lose the

interactivity of use of an interpreted language. However, you probably

will find

that the assignment

will take much longer than necessary if you take that route. That said, I have

seen some students produce some reasonably compact solutions to this

assignment using Processing; it provides a minimum-fuss way of getting the

needed graphics functionality out of Java.)

The main reason we are asking you to use a flat shading model instead

of Gourard shading is

that MATLAB, as far as we can tell, will only do Gourard shading

in a “colormap” sort of mode

instead of a full RGB sort of mode.

Homogeneous coordinates in computer graphics are usually represented

as row vectors,

with operations conducted by doing `row * matrix`

type operations. However, some of the “vectorized”

commands in MATLAB, such as `cross`

and `dot`

,

work better with coordinates stores along the columns; hence, you may find

it useful

to use some transposition operations (indicated using a single quote) to flip

between row and column representations as needed. Your mileage may vary.

**Philosophy:**

The instructions to this assignment are

deliberately a little bit vague – you should feel free to experiment a

bit and come

up with your own choices of parameters and implementation techniques.

For instance, how exactly

should you parameterize orientations? It’s up to you!

Here, you’re not

stuck with whatever choices an API designer made.

**Deliverables:**

Package everything needed to run your script (3D data file, program, etc.),

as well as **three
example scenes** (in any common

image format you’d like) created with your program with different

parameters to demonstrate its capabillity, and upload them

to T-square as a zip file or gzipped tar file.

**Include “HW1” and as much as possible of your full name**

in the filename, e.g., HW1_Aaron_Lanterman.zip.

in the filename, e.g., HW1_Aaron_Lanterman.zip

(The upload procedure should

be reasonably self explanatory once you log in to T-square.)

Be sure to finish

sufficiently in advance of the deadline that you will be able to work around

any troubles T-square gives you to successfully submit before the deadline.

**If you have trouble getting T-square to work, please e-mail your**

compressed file to lanterma@ece.gatech.edu, with “MPG HW #1” and your

full name in the header line; please only use this e-mail submission as a

last resort if T-square isn’t working.

compressed file to lanterma@ece.gatech.edu, with “MPG HW #1” and your

full name in the header line; please only use this e-mail submission as a

last resort if T-square isn’t working.

The midnight due date is intended to discourage people from pulling

all-nighters, which are not healthy.

**Ground rules**: You are welcome to discuss high-level implementation

issues with your fellow students, but you should avoid actually looking

at one another student’s code as whole,

and under no circumstances should you be

copying any portion of another student’s code.

However, asking another student to focus

on a *few* lines of your code discuss why you are getting a particular

kind of error is reasonable. Basically, these “ground rules” are

intended to prevent

a student from “freeloading” off another student, even accidentally, since

they won’t get the full yummy nutritional educational goodness out of the

assignment if they do.

**Assorted notes:**

- Don’t get the ideas of “spotlight” and “specular” confused. They give

similar kind of effects but are quite different things. - Sometimes you can run into “dynamic range issues,” in which color

values higher than some fixed upper limit will “clip” to that limit. You

can manually back your light RGB values down until this isn’t a problem,

or you may want to re-normalize all your color values after you compute them

(i.e. find the max color value, divide all your colors by that, and

then multiply them all by that upper limit). Or you could do some sort or

renormalization compromise, where you normalize to something slightly

bigger than

the language’s natural clip value and let just a few facets clip.

Usually, colors are specified as floating

point values between 0 and 1 (whether it be light colors or the

emissive colors) – so when you multiply them you get something

less than 1, which helps things to not get too crazy.

(I suppose the physics would indicate that the material

values should be less than 1

if they represented a fraction of light reflected.)

When rasterizing triangles,

0 to 1 color values are usually needs to be scaled to some integer

according to whatever the “native” depth of the frame buffer is. As a side

note, some older graphics cards had weird specialized floating

point formats designed to present floats in [0,1] and [-1,1] in

some sort of optimal fashion in a limited number of bits, but

nowadays it’s pretty much your usual IEEE floating point formats.) - You may want to

first get a sense of the size of the model you’re using. In

MATLAB, I’d use min() and max() (obviously use whatever equivalent in

whatever language you’re using) to find the most extreme vertices in

the various dimensions – that should give you a sense of where to put

the front-back clipping planes if you move it to some location. - In most API convetions, the Z_near and Z_far planes are

positive numbers in “worldspace/viewspace length units,” even if the

coordinate system is right-handed (meaning that Z becomes more negative

as objects are moved away from the camera). In the past, I’ve seen a few

cases where someone tried to set Z_near to a negative number (which puts

the near plane behind your head) and Z_far to a positive number.

That doesn’t make sense and will cause things to freak out. - I didn’t put anything in the assignment that requires

you to be able to scale the object, so you don’t have to. It’s easy to

put in if you feel like it, though (remember to do it before the translation). - If your 3-D model is taking ages to load in,

you might want to pre-load it – i.e. put in a flag

that checks to see if whatever variable you’re

loading the model in is already filled, and if it is, doesn’t bother

to load it again. That’s a trick I use a lot. In MATLAB, I use the “clear”

command to clear a variable and force a reload if I need to. - How should you choose the field of view? It depends on how far out

you put the object – further out, smaller field

of view, closer in, bigger field of view, to be able to show the whole

object. Most FPS games use a FOV of like 70 to 90 degrees; some

let you adjust

it. Humans have a FOV closer to 180, although our peripheral vision is

shoddy – it mostly detects motion. So when you’re playing a FPS, you’re

essentially playing with tunnel vision. - Notice that we’re not worrying about the “viewport transformation” (not

to be confused with the view transformation). After the projection matrix

is applied and you do the “perspective divide” – i.e. the divide by w

(of course that’s assuming you are using a perspective projection

matrix – an orthographic projection matrix wouldn’t do the divide),

your x and y coordinates should range from -1 to 1. In your program,

you may

have some outside of that, but we’ll rely on the capability of the 2-D

graphics routines in your package to qwdqwdqwdasdf clip edges appropriately. The “viewport transform” is the final transform that maps this -1 to 1 coordinate system into actual pixel coordinates for the screen. Usually the upper left corner is (0,0) in screen pixel coordinates, and the lower right is something like (1023,767). In clip coordinates, y-up is positive, so you usually need to a negation somewhere there. Anyway, once you figure out what you’re mapping to where, it’s pretty easy to come up with the mapping you would need; if the display is happening in a particular subset of the screen, i.e. a window you’ve created, you would need an additional offset. But nowadays you rarely see any of this, as this final Viewpoint Transform is almost always handled by the GPU according to just a few screen size settings in your host API. In MATLAB, you can draw your triangles and then use

axis([-1 1 -1 1]) and that will crop the image to those limits.

If you’re using some other language

you might have to do something a bit more complicated. If you’d like to learn

more about viewpoint transformations, see

here. - Don’t forget to normalize the vectors used in lighting calculation! (This

is a common errors.) - A lot of folks get confused about all the different coordinate space,

and do the calculations in the wrong space, or more often, have

problems when they erroneously mix two different space in one calculation.

the “spaces,” and did calculations in the wrong space,

or more often,

had problems when they erroneously mixed the spaces in one calculation. - In the past, I’ve seen some severely confused students try to element-wise

multiply (x,y,z,w) spatial coordinates with colors (r,g,b,w), yielding

(x*r,y*g,z*b,w*z). Please don’t do that. How would it make sense to multiply

the x coordinate by the amount of red??? It’s so nonsensical it makes my

brain explode. - The

matrices we are borrowing from the

DirectX webpages assume a row-vector system,

where you multiply vectors by matrices like this:

new_vector = old_vector * transformation_matrix (row-style-transformation)

OpenGL assumes a column-vector system, where you multiply vectors like this:

new_vector = transformation_matrix * old_vector (column-style-transformation)

In the past, I’ve seen a few instances of people using the DirectX

transformation matrices in the second style.

If you want to use a column transformation style,

you’d need to use the *transpose* of the matrices

given in the DirectX documentation. - Just to re-emphasize, you should only use the 2-D drawing capabilities of

your chosen language. Each year I see people working on their programs and

they show me a *3-D* MATLAB plot with three axes (x, y, and z) shown, and

the student could spin the model around using the mouse. IF YOU HAVE

SOMETHING LIKE THAT, YOU HAVE DRASTICALLY MISSED THE POINT OF THE

ASSIGNMENT. How many dimensions does your laptop screen have? Two

dimensions, yes? If you’re using the 3-D plotting

capabilities of MATLAB to draw your object,

how do you think your laptop is

turning those 3-D coordinates into things to plot on your 2-D screen????? HW

#1 is about programming that pipeline yourself so you understand how it works.

Your HW #1 is all about rendering 3-D objects on a *2-D screen* by doing the

operations that map 3-D object into 2-D.

You should only be using 2-D drawing commands that draw in a 2-D window.

After the perspective projection matrix multiply

operation, you have homogeneous

coordinates for your vertices:

[x,y,z,w]

To finish the perspective projection, you divide by the fourth coordinate:

[x’,y’,z’,1] = [x/w, y/w, z/w, w/w].

At that point, the primar thing you might use z’ – or whatever

you call that third coordinate – for

is the z-sorting, so triangles

that are further away from the camera

get drawn first, and things closer to the camera get drawn later.

Your plot commands should only be using x’,y’ in drawing 2-D triangles

on the 2-D plane.

Yeah, I know I’m repeating myself a lot. But this issue comes up every year.